Factors that will determine the success of practical pig breeding / pig farming “Well-planned   breeding   objectives:   The   ultimate   objective   is   to   improve   profitability,   where:   Profit   (P)   =   Returns(R)   -   Cost(C)   or   P   =   R   -   C.     Hence,   only   traits   that   have   a   significant   economic   value   (and   which   will   improve   profitability)   should   therefore   be   included   in   the breeding objective. Once   the   breeding   objective   has   been   finalized   and   the   most   important   economic   traits   identified,   economic   weights   must   be   allocated   to the   overall   objective.   Re-evaluation   of   the   economic   weights   must   be   done   on   a   regular   basis   (every   two   to   three   years).   The   estimation   of genetic   parameters   should   be   conducted   every   four   to   five   years   in   order   to   keep   the   breeding   objectives   relative   and   related   to   market (user & consumer) demands. The   choice   of   the   most   effective   pig   breeding   programme.   This   will   largely   be   determined   by   the   traits   and   their   genetic   relationships   (the production system will also influence traits to be included in a breeding objective). The   purchase   of   genetically   superior   animals   from   reputable   breeding   companies,   stud   breeders   or   multiplier   herds.   This   aspect   is particularly important when establishing a breeding herd - right from the beginning. Knowledge of the size of the various breeds that are available, as continued genetic improvement is influenced by the following: o Increased selection pressure as a result of increased numbers that are performance tested (while the opposite is also true). o Availability of sufficient variation (the raw material of genetic improvement) which will slow down attaining the selection limit. The availability of unique genes, which could comply with changing market requirements in future. Careful   record-keeping,   easy   identification   of   all   breeding   animals   and   their   progeny   (24   x   7   x   365)   and   prudent   use   of   BLUP   (along   with high accuracy of breeding values) and genomics in future. Breeding animals must be compared in the right contemporary groups. The application of AI within a herd should be > 90%. Identify   and   evaluate   the   genetic   supplier   carefully,   ascertain   the   availability   of   the   pig   breed   on   a   national   and   international   basis   (size   of gene pool) and pay realistic and affordable prices for breeding animals. Bio-security   and   high   health   have   become   synonymous   with   modern   pig   production.   Differentiation   of   sire   and   dam   lines   and   traits   to   select for in each line are summarized” Excerpt:  Modern Pig Production
A study by Kruger (2015) where the genetic analysis of the performance of 87 121 progeny that were born and performance tested from 3 152 AI boars from local and imported sires were compared over a period of 14 years (2000 - 2014), have indicated limited superiority of the imported semen.  Hence, it is very important to use the right methods to identify those very top performing AI boars
Landrace pig South Africa | pigs South Africa Pig farming South Africa | Pig breeding South Africa Landrace pig South Africa | Large White pig South Africa
The F1-crossbred pig in South Africa The classical F1 crossbred sow, is the result of crossing the Large White pig breed and the Landrace pig breed as well as their  resipirocal cross. These animals form the basis of numerous commercial production units locally and abroad. The resultant hybrid vigour is achieved in all the reproductive traits and to a lesser extent in the production and carcass traits. The progeny of crossbred sows are known to grow better pre-weaning whereas the F1 sow produce more milk (a higher litter weaning weight), as well as more piglets per litter that are robust and that generally survive better. 
South African Landrace pig pigs south africa | duroc pigs south africa
Please see the Juventis:  Pig Breeds page for more information on the Duroc, Landrace and Large White pig breeds in South Africa
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Worldwide pig breeding had been commercialized, with less breeding companies and less private breeders, each securing a bigger pro rata market share respectively.  By introducing new genotypes in new environments, cognisance must be taken of genotype x environmental interactions - especially during the initial post introduction years.  This phenomenon has a biological, adaptive and genetic connectivity basis. The crossing of different purebred pig breeds or the crossing of different genotypes will still be the future of nucleus and commercial pig production.  Today more advanced tegnology and biotechnology as well as internationally connected databases and genomic information are being used in international pig breeding programs.  It stands to reason that positive heterosis can only be generated from purebreds or genotypes that show a continious and upward spiral of genetic progress.